Brown adipose tissue is a promising therapeutic target for opposing obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The ability to modulate gene expression in mature brown adipocytes is important to understand brown adipocyte function and delineate novel regulatory mechanisms of non-shivering thermogenesis. The aim of this study was to optimize a lipofection-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection protocol for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We determined that a critical parameter was to deliver the siRNA to mature adipocytes by reverse transfection, i.e. transfection of non-adherent cells. Using this protocol, we effectively knocked down both high- and low-abundance transcripts in a model of mature brown adipocytes (WT-1) as well as in primary mature mouse brown adipocytes. A functional consequence of the knockdown was confirmed by an attenuated increase in uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in response to β-adrenergic stimulation of mature WT-1 brown adipocytes transfected with uncoupling protein 1 siRNA. Efficient gene silencing was also obtained in various mouse and human white adipocyte models (3T3-L1, primary mouse white adipocytes, hMADS) with the ability to undergo "browning." In summary, we report an easy and versatile reverse siRNA transfection protocol to achieve specific silencing of gene expression in various models of mature brown and browning-competent white adipocytes, including primary cells.
3. After 30 minutes, use a soil probe or dig down to test the soil. For a mature tree, the water must reach 18 inches deep. Based on how deep the water reached after 30 minutes, you can estimate the time required for you to effectively water your tree.
My current research and scholarly interests are in the area of speech acquisition and relationships of phonetic patterns observed in child speakers to phonological patterns used by mature speakers of languages. The larger theoretical perspective in my work relates to an emergence perspective on phonological acquisition. An emergence view for phonological acquisition does not require that children's phonological abilities are genetically specified in advance. In contrast, the child's intrinsic capacities are seen as being embedded in a rich matrix of support from the environmental that enables emergence of phonological knowledge and the behavioral repertoire that expresses that knowledge in linguistic communication. This active process of interactions between children's maturing capacities and their tuning through many interactions with mature speakers is considered to be a functional origin for acquisition of phonological structure. It is functional in that acquisition of phonological knowledge and increasingly accurate behavior in using that knowledge functions to help the young child learn about her world and take care of her needs and interests.
I am presently interested in exploring the interface of production system characteristics and perceptual influences. Relative to the question of interface of production system characteristics and perceptual influences, my research has centered on vocal development in infants identified in the first six months of life with profound hearing impairment who receive cochlear implants as well as emergence of vocal patterns in children with varying degrees of hearing loss. I have, in addition, explored early vocal patterns in visually impaired infants relative to the impact of visual access on emergence of production system patterns. I have also considered the interface between speech production system variables and onset of perceptual learning from ambient language regularities. In this body of work, I have explored typical speech acquisition in English-learning infants as well as conducting cross- language studies of acquisition in French, Brazilian-Portuguese, Korean, German, and Equadorean-Quichua to understand the potential universality of patterns found in studies of English. In this area of cross language research, I have also begun to explore the infant directed speech style as a special category of input potentially important in understanding the emergence of ambient phonological properties. To understand the relationship between mature speech production patterns and those observed during acquisition, I have conducted comparative analysis of adult speech patterns to patterns in speech acquisition in English and across languages.
Barbara Brown's titi monkey (Callicebus barbarabrownae), also popularly known as the blond titi monkey or northern Bahian blond titi, is a species of titi, a type of New World monkey. This critically endangered species is endemic to the Caatinga in northeastern Brazil, and it is estimated that less than 250 mature individuals remain. It is named after the zoologist Barbara Elaine Russell Brown.
Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in immunity to some viruses and they protect against hematopoietic malignancy but their uncontrolled activity can lead to pathology due to excess cytokine production and inflammation. One goal of our research is to identify the transcriptional networks that control the development and function of NK cells. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that the ETS1 transcription factor is an important regulator of NK cell development and function and limits activation of NK cells in response to endogenous cytokine. In this grant, mice with a conditional allele of Ets1 will be used to delete Ets1 from mature NK cells providing a model system that will allow us to test the hypothesis that ETS1 has distinct but essential requirements during development, maturation, and activation of NK cells. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling development and activation of NK cells will provide a foundation on which to control their function in situations of immune deficiency or hyper-activity when control of NK cell function would be beneficial, such as for immunotherapy.
Natural killer (NK) cells are non-B and non-T lymphocytes that are essential for clearance of certain viruses and protection from hematopoietic malignancy. ETS1 is required for proper development of NK cells and the few NK cells that persist in the absence of ETS1 are hyper-responsive to cytokine stimulation. Here will determine whether ETS1 is required in mature NK cells for their effector maturation and function or whether the altered selection of ETS1-deficient NK cells underlies they altered phenotype and hypersensitivity.
While a mature Monterey cypress may be too big for smaller residential lots, it is an excellent choice as a landscape specimen for larger private residences or for public properties, such as parks and golf courses. When planted in long rows, it is an effective windbreak or hedge.
Monterey cypress has been widely planted in Santa Barbara for over 100 years. Trees of various ages can be seen all around town: along east Cabrillo Boulevard and Channel Drive; in Shoreline Park and La Mesa Park; and, throughout Montecito and Hope Ranch. Many mature specimens can be seen in the Santa Barbara Cemetery.
We have had a bat visiting from time to time over the last month in a small space in our ceiling. I've found the opening in the wall through which it is making its way into the house and would like to seal the hole. I'm worried that there might be baby bats in the ceiling and I don't want to trap them in the house by sealing the hole. There is no easy way to inspect the space where the bat hangs out, so I wondered when the pups of local bats mature.
Frank Cacciutto, of Freeport, New York, writes: "Do we have a word like the Spanish 'madura,' which means both deliciously ripe and ready to be eaten, like a fruit, and also adult or grown-up, as in the English word 'mature' when it is not a euphemism for 'geriatric'?"
I didn't respond to this at first since both of my answers smacked of flippancy, but no one else has posted/riposted so what the heck:1. one sense of mature is ripe; this is not surprising since madura and mature look like they must come from the same Latin root maturas meaning... ripe.2. how about nubile? (of a young woman 8 )TOPPostReplyReply/QuoteEmail ReplyDeleteEditPreviousNextPrevious TopicNext TopicTopic:Ripe-Young-Age (1 of 2), Read 38 timesConf:Word Fugitives, with Barbara WallraffFrom:Bill O'Connor(firstname.lastname@example.org)Date:Sunday, January 24, 1999 05:36 PMA great-grandfather -Francis Perando Wilson- was a word maker in Shelby Co. Alabama. He might have sent -youthed- even though he ended most aged.Bill
When revitalizing mature oil or gas fields, the ability to maximize productivity while minimizing operating costs is critical. Achieving these goals becomes more challenging where sand control is required. This is especially true for complex reservoir lithology, which leads to a variety of fracture and pore pressure gradients and premature water breakthrough. In addition, reduced deliverability, resulting from pressure depletion presents, additional complications related to achieving acceptable project economics. The Barbara field, located in the central Adriatic Sea, is an example of this type of reservoir. For this project, a dedicated work team was assigned to identify and implement the solutions to improve field performance through continuous operations optimization. The Barbara field consists of stacked pay sections that have been depleted since the early 1980's. To achieve favorable economics, techniques had to be used that would both maximize the deliverability of each well and minimize operational costs. This paper reviews the Barbara field workover program. The evolution of techniques, equipment, and products leading to enhanced productivity while substantially reducing costs is described. The fluid systems and operation procedures designed to optimize frac-pack geometry are discussed. In addition, the one-trip multi-zone gravel pack assemblies are described that allow multiple zones to be individually frac packed in a single run, thus providing significant rig-time reductions without sacrificing completion efficiency. Finally, the complex nature of this reservoir dictates a need for a variety of completion techniques. This means that frac-packing was not necessarily an option for all zones. For the intervals where fracturing was not employed, productivity still needed to be maximized. To accomplish this goal, perforation tunnel clean up procedures have been optimized 041b061a72