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# Cubic Content Unit

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## cubic content unit

In the United States, natural gas can be priced in units of dollars per therm, dollars per MMBtu, or dollars per cubic feet.1 The heat content of natural gas per physical unit (such as Btu per cubic foot) is needed to convert these prices from one price basis to another. In 2020, the U.S. annual average heat content of natural gas delivered to consumers was about 1,037 Btu per cubic foot. Therefore, 100 cubic feet (Ccf) of natural gas equals 103,700 Btu, or 1.037 therms. One thousand cubic feet (Mcf) of natural gas equals 1.037 MMBtu, or 10.37 therms.

You can convert natural gas prices from one price basis to another with these formulas (assuming a heat content of natural gas of 1,037 Btu per cubic foot):\$ per Ccf divided by 1.037 equals \$ per therm\$ per therm multiplied by 1.037 equals \$ per Ccf\$ per Mcf divided by 1.037 equals \$ per MMBtu\$ per Mcf divided by 10.37 equals \$ per therm\$ per MMBtu multiplied by 1.037 equals \$ per Mcf\$ per therm multiplied by 10.37 equals \$ per Mcf

The heat content of natural gas may vary by location and by type of natural gas consumer, and it may vary over time. Consumers and analysts should contact natural gas distribution companies or natural gas suppliers for information on the heat content of the natural gas they supply to their customers. Some natural gas distribution companies or utilities may provide this information on customers' bills.

Learn more:Average annual and monthly heat content of natural gas consumed by stateNewly released heat content data allow for state-to-state natural gas comparisonsNatural gas conversion calculator

To figure out the density, you are filling up a container with concrete. This container must have a known volume (4), minimum .20 cubic feet. First weigh the empty container (1) and record that value to the nearest tenth (.1) of a pound. After performing the proper procedures for filling the container (i.e. filling it in three lifts, mallet blows, rodding, striking off with strike-off plate), follow these steps:

Air content can be calculated in the event that your air meter does not work properly. In order to calculate this, you must have the theoretical density. This information can be obtained from the concrete supplier, who has this information on the mix design for the mix you are working with. Again, you will need your results from the fresh unit weight.

The formula above allows you to subtract the fresh from the theoretical and come up with a calculated percentage of air content without performing an actual test. For the ACI test, all that is necessary is to be able to recognize the order of the formula written above.

The cubic metre (in Commonwealth English and international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or cubic meter (in American English) is the unit of volume in the International System of Units (SI). Its symbol is m3. It is the volume of a cube with edges one metre in length. An alternative name, which allowed a different usage with metric prefixes, was the stère, still sometimes used for dry measure (for instance, in reference to wood). Another alternative name, no longer widely used, was the kilolitre.

A cubic metre of pure water at the temperature of maximum density (3.98 C) and standard atmospheric pressure (101.325 kPa) has a mass of 1000 kg, or one tonne. At 0 C, the freezing point of water, a cubic metre of water has slightly less mass, 999.972 kilograms.

One cubic foot of methane gas at standard temperature and pressure (60 degrees Fahrenheit and 14.73 pounds per square inch) contains exactly 1,000 Btus. So one thousand cubic feet of methane, 1 mcf, contains one million Btus, or one MMBtu. Gas is priced by the MMBtu. Gas sold at \$5 per MMBtu, if solely methane, would sell at \$5 per mcf.

Exploration companies must report their production of natural gas on royalty checks in mcf, even though the actual price is based on Btus. In order to know the price per MMBtu, you must know the Btu content of the gas. Some companies include that information on their check details. If not, the company should provide that information if asked. It is not possible to compare prices between companies and wells without knowing the Btu content of the gas being produced.

To convert volumetric units to units based on energy content, you must know the heating value of that specific gas. The heating value tells you how many MMBtus are contained in each Mcf. A common heating value is 1.015 MMBtu/Mcf. Pipelines and LDCs meter gas based on volume but then use meter factors based on average heating value to convert usage to energy content. They then bill their customers based on the energy content delivered.

The Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator uses the AVoided Emissions and geneRation Tool (AVERT) U.S. national weighted average CO2 marginal emission rate to convert reductions of kilowatt-hours into avoided units of carbon dioxide emissions.

Most users of the Equivalencies Calculator who seek equivalencies for electricity-related emissions want to know equivalencies for emissions reductions from energy efficiency (EE) or renewable energy (RE) programs. Calculating the emission impacts of EE and RE on the electricity grid requires estimating the amount of fossil-fired generation and emissions being displaced by EE and RE. A marginal emission factor is the best representation to estimate which fossil-fired units EE/RE are displacing across the fossil fleet. EE and RE programs are not generally assumed to affect baseload power plants that run all the time, but rather marginal power plants that are brought online as necessary to meet demand. Therefore, AVERT provides a national marginal emission factor for the Equivalencies Calculator.

In the preamble to the joint EPA/Department of Transportation rulemaking on May 7, 2010 that established the initial National Program fuel economy standards for model years 2012-2016, the agencies stated that they had agreed to use a common conversion factor of 8,887 grams of CO2 emissions per gallon of gasoline consumed (Federal Register 2010). For reference, to obtain the number of grams of CO2 emitted per gallon of gasoline combusted, the heat content of the fuel per gallon can be multiplied by the kg CO2 per heat content of the fuel.

In the preamble to the joint EPA/Department of Transportation rulemaking on May 7, 2010 that established the initial National Program fuel economy standards for model years 2012-2016, the agencies stated that they had agreed to use a common conversion factor of 10,180 grams of CO2 emissions per gallon of diesel consumed (Federal Register 2010). For reference, to obtain the number of grams of CO2 emitted per gallon of diesel combusted, the heat content of the fuel per gallon can be multiplied by the kg CO2 per heat content of the fuel.

Carbon dioxide emissions per therm are determined by converting million British thermal units (mmbtu) to therms, then multiplying the carbon coefficient times the fraction oxidized times the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to carbon (44/12).

Carbon dioxide emissions per barrel of crude oil are determined by multiplying heat content times the carbon coefficient times the fraction oxidized times the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to that of carbon (44/12).

The average heat content of crude oil is 5.80 mmbtu per barrel (EPA 2021). The average carbon coefficient of crude oil is 20.31 kg carbon per mmbtu (EPA 2021). The fraction oxidized is assumed to be 100 percent (IPCC 2006).

In 2019, there were 120.9 million homes in the United States (EIA 2020a). On average, each home consumed 11,880 kWh of delivered electricity. Nationwide household consumption of natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, and fuel oil totaled 5.23, 0.46, and 0.45 quadrillion Btu, respectively, in 2019 (EIA 2020a). Averaged across households in the United States, this amounts to 41,510 cubic feet of natural gas, 42 gallons of liquefied petroleum gas, and 27 gallons of fuel oil per home.

Total home electricity, natural gas, distillate fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas consumption figures were converted from their various units to metric tons of CO2 and added together to obtain total CO2 emissions per home.

Carbon dioxide emissions per pound of propane were determined by multiplying the weight of propane in a cylinder times the carbon content percentage times the fraction oxidized times the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to that of carbon (44/12). Propane cylinders vary with respect to size; for the purpose of this equivalency calculation, a typical cylinder for home use was assumed to contain 18 pounds of propane.

The average heat content of coal consumed by the electric power sector in the U.S. in 2018 was 20.84 mmbtu per metric ton (EIA 2019). The average carbon coefficient of coal combusted for electricity generation in 2018 was 26.08 kilograms carbon per mmbtu (EPA 2020). The fraction oxidized is assumed to be 100 percent (IPCC 2006).

Carbon dioxide emissions per ton of coal were determined by multiplying heat content times the carbon coefficient times the fraction oxidized times the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to that of carbon (44/12). The amount of coal in an average railcar was assumed to be 100.19 short tons, or 90.89 metric tons (Hancock 2001).

The average heat content of coal consumed by the electric power sector in the U.S. in 2018 was 20.84 mmbtu per metric ton (EIA 2019). The average carbon coefficient of coal combusted for electricity generation in 2018 was 26.08 kilograms carbon per mmbtu (EPA 2021). The fraction oxidized is 100 percent (IPCC 2006). 041b061a72